General info about Turkey

General info about Turkey

Flag

Turkish flag Official flag of the Republic of Turkey. Red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening. It’s called as “al sancak” in Turkish, meaning “red banner”.

Geographic location

Turkey’s satellite pictureGeography location: South-western Asia (that part west of the Bosphorus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria.

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

Area

total area: 780,580 sq km
land area: 770,760 sq km
water area: 9,820 sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Texas, or larger than France and UK put together, or 2.5 times bigger than Italy.

Turkey in EuropeLand boundaries

total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km.
Coastline: 7,200 km

Names

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish long form); Türkiye (Turkish short form); Republic of Turkey (formal English); Turkey (English short form); Turchia (Italian); Türkei (German); Turkiet (Swedish); Turkije (Dutch); Turkki (Finnish); Turquia (Portuguese); Turquia (Spanish); Turquie (French); Tyrkia (Norwegian); Tyrkiet (Danish); Tyrkland (Icelandic)

Maritime claims

Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only – to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea.

Climate

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior.

Terrain

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 meters
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 meters
largest lake: Lake Van 3,713 square km

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower.

Environment

International agreements: party to – Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Environmental Modification.
Current issues are: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosphorus ship traffic.

Geographic note

Strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas. Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah’s Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country, in the city of Agri. The country is divided into 7 fictional geographic regions.

Population

Officially 79,814,871 as of 1st January 2017 (67,803,927 in 2000 & 13,648,270 in 1927), average of 104 inhabitants live per square kilometer, 92.3% of the total population live in the cities and 7.7% in villages or small towns in the countryside.
Istanbul: 14,804,116 as of January 2017 (10,033,478 in 2000), 18.5 % of the total population, 2,849 people per square kilometer
Ankara: 5,346,518 as of January 2017 (4,007,860 in 2000), 6.7 % of the total population, 218 people per square kilometer
Izmir: 4,223,545 as of January 2017 (3,387,908 in 2000), 5.3 % of the total population, 352 people per square kilometer
Tunceli has the lowest population in Turkey: 82,193 (as of January 2017)

  • Age structure

total population: male 40,043,650 (50.2%); female 39,771,221 (49,8%) (as of January 2017)
0-14 years: 23,7% , total of 18,925,782 (male 9,715,020; female 9,210,762) (January 2017)
15-64 years: 68% , total of 54,237,586 (male 27,409,238; female 26,828,348) (January 2017)
65 years and over: 8,3% , total of 6,651,503 (male 2,919,392; female 3,732,111) (January 2017)
Median age: total 31,4 years (male: 30,8 years; female: 32 years). More than half of the population is under the median age (as of January 2017)
Population growth rate: 1.35% in 2016 (1.45% in 2010 & 2,11% in 1927)
Birth rate: 17.93 births/1,000 population (2011)
Death rate: 6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2006)

  • Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.007 male(s)/female (2016)
    Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births in 2011 (17,5/1,000 in 2006)
    Mother mortality rate at birth: 14 deaths/100,000 live births in 2011 (70/100,000 in 2003)
    Life expectancy at birth: (2011)
    total population: 75 years (73.2 in 2006)
    male: 72 years (71.1 in 2006)
    female: 76 years (75.3 in 2006)
    Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman in 2012 (2.14 in 2008, 2.18 in 2006)

Nationality

noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic divisions: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20%
Religions: Muslim 99% (mostly Sunni), other 1% (Christian and Jews)
Languages: Turkish (official)
Literacy: age 6 and over can read and write (2015)
total population: 96,22%
male: 98,71%
female: 93,72%

Government

( more on government )
Conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
Conventional short form: Turkey
Local long form: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Local short form: Türkiye
Data code: TU or TR
Type of government: republican parliamentary democracy
Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions

81 provinces (iller, singular – il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Independence

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic, 29 October (1923)
Constitution: 7 November 1982 , amended on 17 October 2001 by TBMM

Legal system

derived from various European legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations. Member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR)

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal.

Executive branch

  • Chief of state
    President Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN was elected by the people’s vote in August 2014 for a five-year term (used to be seven years before 2007). Note that with the new articles of the Constitution, as of 2014 the President is and will be elected by the public vote, not by the Parliament as it used to be until 2007.
  • Head of government
    Head of government: Prime Minister Mr. Binali Yildirim, appointed by President Erdogan in May 2016.
  • National Security Council (MGK)
    Advisory body to the President and the cabinet
  • Cabinet
    Council of Ministers appointed by the President on nomination of the prime minister

Economic overview

Turkey’s dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2010 accounted for 25,2% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. Its most important industry and largest exporter is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. The economic situation in recent years has been marked by rapid growth coupled with partial success in implementing structural reform measures. Inflation declined to 8,53% in 2016 (8,9% in 2010), down from 90% in 1997, but the public sector fiscal deficit probably remained near 10% of GDP due in large part to interest payments which accounted for 40% of central government spending in 2003. The government enacted a new tax law and speeded up privatization in 1998 but made no progress on badly needed social security reform. Ankara is trying to increase trade with other countries in the region yet most of Turkey’s trade is still with OECD countries. After the implementation in January 1996 of a Customs Union with the EU, foreign direct investment in the country was recorded $15,9 billion in 2011. Results during recent years improved because of strong financial support from the IMF and tighter fiscal policy. A major political and economic issue over the next decade is whether or not Turkey will become a member of the EU. But further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Privatization sales in 2015 were about US$ 1,99 billion ($6,27b in 2014, $12,48b in 2013).

GDP

GDP (Total): US$ 822,1 billion in 2013 ($735,8b in 2010, $616,7b in 2009)
GDP: purchasing power parity US$ 960.5 billion (2010 est.) (was $551.6 billion in 2005 est.)
GDP growth rate: 4% in 2015 (8,9% in 2010, 10.7% in 2006)
GDP per capita: US$ 9.261 in 2015 ($10.971 in 2013, $15.079 in 2010, $13.710 in 2009, $5.482 in 2006)
GDP composition by sector:
agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 26.8%
manufacturing: 22.2%
services: 63.5% (2006)

(consumer prices): 94% (1995), 90% (1997), 75% (1998), 68% (1999), 45% (2000), 90% (2001), 31% (2002), 11% (2004), 7.72% (2005), 5.9% (2007), 6.4% (2010), 10,45% (2011), 6,16% (2012), 4,5% (2015)
Investment (gross fixed): 15.5% of GDP (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21,9% in 2015 (16,9% in 2010, 17,1% in 2009, 20,5% in 2007, 20% in 2005, 18% in 2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: 70.7% of GDP (2006)
lowest 20%: 5.6%
highest 20%: 47.6% (2009)
Distribution of family income: 44% (2002)
Labor force: 25.6 million in 2010 (24.7 million in 2009)
by occupation: agriculture 35.9%, services 22.8%, industry 41.2% (2004)
note: about 5,5 million Turks work or live abroad as of 2016 (3 million in 2005), mostly in Germany

Unemployment rate: As of November 2016 it’s 12,1% (plus underemployment of 2,9%) for people 15 years of age and up (11.9% in 2010), 12,3% for 15-64 years of age, 22,6% for 15-24 years of age
Employment Rate: As of November 2016 it’s 52,1% for people 15 years of age and up (41,3% in 2010)

Budget

revenues: 499,48 billion TL, approximately US$ 227 billion (2015 est.)
expenditures: 350,95 billion TL, approximately US$ 195 billion (2012 est.)
foreign debt stock: US$ 290,3 billion in 2010 (US$ 268,7 billion in 2009)
public debt: 34,1% of GDP in 2014 (42,3% of GDP in 2010, 67.5% of GDP in 2005)
Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromate, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper.
Industrial production growth rate: 12.5% (2014)

  • Agriculture

Main products: tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus, livestock
Illicit drugs: major transit route for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish to Western Europe and the USA via air, land, and sea routes; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate.
Agricultural land: 385.650 sq km (2015) (391.219 sq km – 50.12% of the land area in 2008)
Forest area: 216.780 sq km (2015) (211.887 sq km – 27% of the land area in 2004)

  • Electricity

220 Volts
capacity: 49,523,000 kW (2010)
production: 260 billion kWh (2015)
consumption: 264 billion kWh (2015)
export: 2.67 billion kWh (2010)
imports: 1,88 billion kWh (2010)

  • Oil

production: 18 million barrel (2014)
consumption: 41,5 million tons (2010) (21,2 million tons in 1991)
imports: 16,84 million tons (2010), mostly from Iran and Russia (14,19m in 2009)
proved reserves: 262.2 million bbl (2012)

  • Natural gas

production: 502 million cubic meters (2014) (975m m3 in 2008), which is only 1,7% of country’s need
consumption: 48 billion m3 in 2015 (37,41b m3 in 2010, 27,34b m3 in 2005)
exports: 714 million m3 (2011)
imports: 43,8 billion m3 (2011), mostly from Russia and Iran, also from Algeria, Azerbaijan and Nigeria.
proved reserves in the World: 187,1 trillion m3 (2010)

  • Economic aid

recipient: ODA, $635.8 million (2002)
note: aid for Gulf war efforts from coalition allies (1991) $4.1 billion; aid pledged for Turkish Defense Fund $2.5 billion; aid for Iraqi war (2003) approx. $8.5 billion; aid for Syrian refugees from EU (2015-2016 est.) 3 billion Euros.

  • Currency

Turkish Lira – TL or TRL (formerly New Turkish lira – YTL)

Exchange rates: USD 1 = 3,86 TL , Euro 1 = 4,55 TL (as of 16th of Nov 2017).
As of 01/01/2005, six zeroes are dropped from the old TL by the Law, which made 1.000.000 TL equal to 1 YTL. Both TL and YTL banknotes were in physical circulation for one year in 2005 and the old TL banknotes are withdrawn from circulation as of 1 January 2006. As of 1st of January 2009, “Yeni” (New) is dropped off from the name of the currency and YTL is now called TL (Turkish Lira) again.

Some previous rates: US$ 1 = 1,420,000 (Dec. 2004), 1,670,000 (Jan. 2003), 1,400,000 (Feb. 2002), 538,000 (Jan 2000), 420,000 (Jul 1999), 270,000 (July 1998), 175,000 (October 1997), 60,502.1 (January 1996), 45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992), 4,171.8 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Transportation

  • Railways
    The State Railways is known as TCDD
    total: 12,026 km (2015). Plans are 25.536 km until 2023 and 27.972 km until 2035
    gauge: 8,717 km standard + 2,274 km electrified (2007)
    New high-speed train tracks are built or under construction between major cities
    total passenger capacity: 60 thousand (2009)
    capacity of Freight Wagons: 691,634 tons (2007)
  • Highways
    ( Detailed Road Map )
    total: 352,046 km (2012)
    paved: 141,850 km (including 2,155 km of expressways) (2010)
    unpaved: 207,017 km (2002)
    Waterways: about 1,200 km (2003)
    Motor vehicles: 21,268,879 (February 2017)
    Pipelines: gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2003)
    Ports: Gemlik, Hopa, Iskenderun, Istanbul, Izmir, Izmit, Dilovasi – Yilport, Mersin, Samsun, Trabzon
  • Merchant marine
    total: 526 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 4,666,895 GRT/7,311,504 DWT
    ships by type: bulk carrier 108, cargo 228, chemical tanker 45, combination ore/oil 1, container 25, liquefied gas 6, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 33, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 22, specialized tanker 1
    foreign-owned: 8 (Cyprus 3, Denmark 2, Greece 1, Italy 1, Switzerland 1)
    registered in other countries: 231 (2005 est.)
  • Airports
    total: 55 civilian (2016) international and national, plus several military airports
    with paved runways over 3,047 m: 15
    with paved runways 2,438 to 3,046 m: 32
    with paved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
    with paved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 18
    with paved runways under 914 m: 4
    with unpaved runways over 3,047 m: 1
    with unpaved runways 2,438 to 3,046 m: 1
    with unpaved runways 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    with unpaved runways 914 to 1,523 m: 8
    with unpaved runways under 914 m: 20 (2005 est.)
    Heliports: 54 registered (2012) (42 in 2006), out of which 21 are in Istanbul
    Civilian aircrafts: 542 wide body passenger planes (162 in 2003)
    Total passengers: 181,5 million in October 2016 (34,5 million 2003)
    Flight destinations: 283 cities abroad, 116 countries (60 cities in 2003)

Communications
Country code: 90
Telephones (land lines): 11,009,614 in March 2017 (16,201,466 in 2010, 18,978,223 in 2005)
Telephone system: fair domestic and international systems, area codes
Mobile GSM users: 75,724,413 as of March 2017. Three networks: Turkcell, Vodafone (ex-Telsim), Turk Telekom (ex-Avea)
domestic: trunk microwave radio relay network; limited open-wire network
international: international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002). Turkey has four communication satellites; Turksat 1B (31.3 degrees East, not operative since 2006) , Turksat 1C (31.3 degrees East), Turksat 2A (42 degrees East), and Turksat 3A (42 degrees East).
Radio broadcast stations: 36 National, 102 Regional, 955 Local, a total of 1,093 (2005)
Radios: 19.4 million (1997 est.)
Television broadcast stations: 24 National, 17 Regional, 218 Local, a total of 259 (2005)
Total TV and Radio stations: 1190 in 2014
Internet country code: .tr
Internet hosts: 16.874.100 in 2009 (355,215 in 2004)
Internet users: 64,335,111 as of March 2017 (14,4m in 2010, 2,24m in 2005, 1,62m in 2000)

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